Common Print Making Techniques
Printing Technique capable
of producing unlimited tonal gradations to re-create the broad flat
tints of ink wash or watercolor drawings by etching microscopic crackles
and pits into the image on a master plate, typically made of copper
and zinc. The majority of Spanish artists Goya’s (1746-1828) graphic
works were done using this technique.
Printing using an unlinked plate to produce the subtle embossed texture
of a white-on-white image, highlighted by the shadow of the relief
image on the unlinked Paper. This technique is used in many Japanese
Printing technique in which proofs are pulled back from a block on
which the artwork or design is built up like a collage, creating a
Printing technique of intaglio engraving in which a hard, steel needle
incises lines on a metal plate, creating a burr that yields a characteristically
soft and velvety line in the final print.
Printing technique in which an intaglio image is produced by cutting
a metal plate or box directly with a sharp engraving tool. The incised
lines are linked and printed with the heavy pressure.
Printing technique in which a metal plate is first covered with an
acid-resistant Material, then worked with an etching needle to create
an intaglio image. The exposed metal is eaten away in an acid bath,
creating depressed lines that are later inked for printing. This technique
was thought to have been developed by Daniel Hopfer (1493-1536). Etching
surpassed engraving as the most popular graphic art during the active
years of Rembrandt and Hercules Segher in the 17th century, and it
remains one of the most versatile and subtle printing techniques today.
Iris or Giclee
A computerized reproduction technique in which the image and topology
are generated from a digital file and printed by a special ink jet
printer, using ink, acrylic or oil paints. Giclee printing offers
one of the highest degree of accuracy and richness of color available
in any reproduction techniques.
Printing technique using a planographic process in which prints are
pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface that
has been chemically sensitized so that ink sticks only to the design
areas, and is repelled by the non-image areas. Lithography was invented
in 1798 in Solnhofen, Germany by Alois Senefelder. The early history
of lithography is dominated by great French artists such as Daumier
and Delacroix, and later by Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Braque
(mezzo = half and tinta = tone), a reverse engraving process used
on a copper or steel plate to produce illustrations in relief with
effects of light and shadow. The surface of a master plate is roughened
with a tool called a rocker so that if inked, it will print solid
black. The areas to be white or gray in the print are rubbed down
so as not to take ink. It was widely used in the 18th and 19th centuries
to reproduce portraits and other paintings, but became obsolete with
the introduction of photoengraving.
One-of-a-kind print made by
painting on a sheet of metal or glass and transferring the still-wet-painting
to a sheet of paper by hand or with an etching press. If enough paint
remains on the master plate, additional prints can be made, however,
the reprint will have substantial variations from the original image.
Monotype printing is not a multiple-replica process since each print
Offset Lithography -
A special photomechanical
technique in which the image to be printed is transferred to the negative
plates and printed onto papers. Offset lithography is very well adapted
to color printing.
printing technique that makes use of a squeegee to force ink directly
onto a piece of paper or canvas through a stencil creating an image
on a screen of silk or other fine fabric with an impermeable substance.
Serigraphy differs from most other printing in that its color areas
are paint films rather than printing - ink stains.
process starts with drawing the image on the stone by using a greasy
black lithographic pencil. These usually take three to twelve days,
depending on the size and complexity of the image. The main problem
is that mistakes cannot be erased. Small corrections can be made with
a sharp knife, but major corrections are needed, it is necessary to
start again on a new stone.
Silk-screening, which is also referred to as serigraphy or screen
printing, is a centuries-old process that originated in China, It
is, in essence, a refined version of a hand stenciled process. The
image is divided, as it were, by a color, with a screen corresponding
to each shade of ink that will appear on the final surface-paper,
canvas, fabric, etc. The ink is applied to a screen, transferring
to the paper only through the porous segments. A separate screen must
be created for each color. On average, it takes between 80 to 100
screens to create a serigraph. The elements are hand-drawn onto mylar
and photographically exposed onto each screen. Inks are matched to
the hues of the original and custom mixed. Each edition takes approximately
eight weeks to complete: four to five people handle the several stages
of the process, and 80 to 90 percent of the production time is devoted
to making color separations and the screens.
artist goes over the edition repainting or touching up special areas.
print (or lithograph) is sprayed or hand-coated with a chemical compound.
When it dries, the print is covered with another chemical solution
that separates the paper from the ink. How well the paper separates
and how carefully all remaining paper is removed can affect the finish
product. Once the paper is gone, what’s left resembles a thin slice
The authorized number of impressions
produced. The edition includes all numbered pieces artist’s proofs
(a.p.) hors de commerce examples (H.C., i.e. outside of usual commerce)
and printers proofs (P.P.).
Remarque - An original hand drawing by the artist painted or drawn onto the limited edition.
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